Before you go on to work on the grammar and writing exercises in this unit, read through this brief review of linking words and phrases for cause and effect. There are three main types of linking words: conjunctions, transitions, and prepositions.
The most important conjunctions are because, as, since, and so. “Because”, “as”, and “since” introduce a cause; “so” introduces an effect. These are used to join two complete sentences (or independent clauses) together. They are often used like this:
First sentence conjunction second sentence.
I stayed at home because it was raining.
It was raining, so I stayed at home. (use a comma before “so”)
You can also reverse the order of the sentences with because, as, and since.
Because it was raining, I stayed at home. (use a comma between the first and second sentences)
Note that this is not possible with “so”.
The most important transitions are therefore, consequently, and as a result. All of these introduce an effect. These are used to join two complete sentences (or independent clauses) together. They are often used like this:
First sentence; transition, second sentence.
First sentence. transition, second sentence.
It was raining; therefore, I stayed home.
It was raining. Consequently, I stayed at home.
The most important prepositions are due to and because of. Both of these introduce a cause in the form of a noun phrase. They are often used like this:
Sentence due to noun phrase.
Because of noun phrase, sentence.
I stayed at home due to the rain.
Because of the rain, I stayed at home.